Publications: Peer-reviewed journal articles (by staff)

Complex toxin profiles in phytoplankton and Greenshellâ„¢ mussels (Perna canaliculus), revealed by LC-MS/MS analysis

1 January, 2002

MacKenzie L, Holland P, McNabb P, Beuzenberg V, Selwood A, Suzuki T 2002. Complex toxin profiles in phytoplankton and Greenshell™ mussels (Perna canaliculus), revealed by LC-MS/MS analysis. Toxicon 40 (9): 1321-1330.


Toxin profiles were determined in phytoplankton cell concentrates and Greenshell™ Mussels (Perna canaliculus) exposed to a dinoflagellate bloom dominated by Dinophysis acuta and Protoceratium reticulatum, This was achieved by using a method for the simultaneous identification and quantification of a variety of micro-algal toxins by liquid chromatography -tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) with electrospray ionisation (+/-) and monitoring of daughter ions in multiple reaction modes. Plankton concentrates and shellfish contained high levels of yessotoxins (YTXs) and pectenotoxins (PTXs) and low levels of okadaic acid (OA). A high proportion (> 87%) of the OA in both plankton and shellfish was released by alkaline hydrolysis. An isomer of pectenotoxin 1 (PTX1i) was nearly as abundant as pectenotoxin 2 (PTX2) in the plankton and shellfish, and the latter contained high levels of their respective seco acids. DTX1 DTX2, and PTX6 were not detected. MS-MS experiments revealed that the shellfish contained several other oxygenated metabolites of YTX in addition to 45-hydroxy yessotoxin (45OH-YTX). Gymnodimine (GYM) was present in the shellfish but not plankton and it was probably the residue from a previous GYM contamination event. Unlike the other toxins, GYM was concentrated in tissues outside the digestive gland and levels did not decrease over 5 months. The depuration rates of YTX and PTXs from mussels were modelled.

(C) 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.