Publications: Peer-reviewed journal articles (by staff)

Cryopreservation of Greenshell™ mussel (Perna canaliculus) trochophore larvae

  • Paredes E,
  • Adams SL,
  • Tervit HR,
  • Smith JF,
  • McGowan LT,
  • Gale SL,
  • Morrish JM,
  • and Watts E
1 January, 2012

Paredes E, Adams SL, Tervit HR, Smith JF, McGowan LT, Gale SL, Morrish JM, Watts E 2012. Cryopreservation of Greenshell™ mussel (Perna canaliculus) trochophore larvae. Cryobiology 65(3): 256-262.


The Greenshell™ mussel (Perna canaliculus) is the main shellfish species farmed in New Zealand. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of cryoprotectant concentration, loading and unloading strategy as well as freezing and thawing method in order to develop a protocol for cryopreservation of trochophore larvae (16-20 h old). Toxicity tests showed that levels of 10-15% ethylene glycol (EG) were not toxic to larvae and could be loaded and unloaded in a single step.

Through cryopreservation experiments, we designed a cryopreservation protocol that enabled 40-60% of trochophores to develop to D-larvae when normalized to controls. The protocol involved: holding at 0 degrees C for 5 min, then cooling at 1 degrees C min(-1) to 10 degrees C, holding for a further 5 min, then cooling at 0.5 degrees C min(-1) to 35 degrees C followed by a 5 min hold and then plunging into liquid nitrogen. A final larval rearing experiment of 18 days was conducted to assess the ability of these frozen larvae to develop further. Results showed that only 2.8% of the frozen trochophores were able to develop to competent pediveligers.

 (C) 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.