Publications: Peer-reviewed journal articles (by staff)

Pectenotoxin and okadaic acid-based toxin profiles in Dinophysis acuta and Dinophysis acuminata from New Zealand

1 January, 2005

MacKenzie L, Beuzenberg V et al 2005. Pectenotoxin and okadaic acid-based toxin profiles in Dinophysis acuta and Dinophysis acuminata from New Zealand. Harmful Algae 4(1): 75-85.


The major pectenotoxin and okadaic acid group toxins in Dinophysis acuta and Dinophysis acuminata cell concentrates, collected from various locations around the coast of the South Island of New Zealand (NZ), were determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). PTX2 and PTX11 were the major polyether toxins in all Dinophysis spp. cell concentrates. D. acuta contained PTX11 and PTX2 at concentrations of 4.7-64.6 and 32.5-107.5 pg per cell, respectively. The amounts of PTX11 and PTX2 in D. acuminata were much lower at 0.4-2.1 and 2.4-25.8 pg per cell, respectively. PTX seco acids comprised only 4% of the total PTX content of both D. acuta and D. acuminata. D. acuta contained low levels of OA (0.8-2.7 pg per cell) but specimens from the South Island west coast also contained up to 10 times higher levels of OA esters (7.0-10.2 pg per cell). Esterified forms of OA were not observed in D. acuta specimens from the Marlborough Sounds. D. acuta did not contain any DTX1 though all D. acuminata specimens contained DTX1 at levels of 0.1-2.4 pg per cell. DTX2 was not present in any New Zealand Dinophysis spp. specimens. Although the total toxin content varied spatially and temporally, the relative proportions of the various toxins in different specimens from the same location appeared to be relatively stable. The total PTX/total OA ratios in different isolates of D. acuta were very similar (mean +/- S.E.: 14.9 +/- 1.9), although the Marlborough Sounds D. acuminata isolates had a higher total PTX/total CIA ratio (mean +/- S.E.: 22.7 +/- 2.4) than the Akaroa Harbour isolates (8.0). No evidence of azaspiracids were detected in these specimens. These results show that the LC-MS/MS monitoring of plankton for PTX group toxins (e.g. PTX2) and their derivatives (e.g. PTX2 seco acid) may provide a sensitive, semi-quantitative, indicator of the presence of more cryptic OA group toxins (e.g. OA esters).

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