Publications: Peer-reviewed journal articles (by staff)

Synthesis and methemoglobinemia-inducing properties of benzocaine isosteres designed as humane rodenticides

  • Conole D,
  • Beck TM,
  • Jay-Smith M,
  • Tingle MD,
  • Eason CT,
  • Brimble MA,
  • and others
1 January, 2014
CITATION

Conole D, Beck TM, Jay-Smith M, Tingle MD, Eason CT, Brimble MA et al 2014. Synthesis and methemoglobinemia-inducing properties of benzocaine isosteres designed as humane rodenticides. Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry, 22(7), 2220-2235.

ABSTRACT

A number of isosteres (oxadiazoles, thiadiazoles, tetrazoles and diazines) of benzocaine were prepared and evaluated for their capacity to induce methemoglobinemia-with a view to their possible application as humane pest control agents. It was found that an optimal lipophilicity for the formation of methemoglobin (metHb) in vitro existed within each series, with 1,2,4-oxadiazole 3 (metHb% = 61.0 +/- 3.6) and 1,3,4-oxadiazole 10 (metHb% = 52.4 +/- 0.9) demonstrating the greatest activity. Of the 5 candidates (compounds 3, 10, 11, 13 and 23) evaluated in vivo, failure to induce a lethal end-point at doses of 120 mg/kg was observed in all cases. Inadequate metabolic stability, particularly towards hepatic enzymes such as the CYPs, was postulated as one reason for their failure.

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